Mercury's tenuous atmosphere (exosphere) contains hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, as well as smaller amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. This graphic shows sodium concentration near Mercury as detected by the MESSENGER spacecraft in October 2008.
Click on image for full size
Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Atmosphere of Mercury

Mercury has very little atmosphere. The planet's small size means that its gravity is too weak to hold down a normal atmosphere. There is a very thin atmosphere around the planet. Mercury's thin atmosphere is constantly being "blown away" into space by the pressure of sunlight and by the solar wind. The tiny planet's atmosphere is also constantly replenished.

Mercury's atmosphere contains small amounts of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It also has even tinier quantities of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Hydrogen and helium come from the solar wind. Helium, sodium, and potassium are produced by radioactive decay in Mercury's crust. Micrometeorites vaporize surface rocks, adding gaseous sodium, potassium, and calcium to the thin, exotic "air". All of these gases are soon ionized by heat, sunlight, or radiation, and are quickly carried away from Mercury by the solar wind and interactions with Mercury's magnetic field. Atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is less than one trillionth of Earth's (around one nanopascal or 10-14 bar).

Temperatures at the surface range between 100 and 700 kelvins (-280° F to 800° F or -173° C to 427° C). Lead melts at 600 kelvins! This large range in surface temperature is possible because Mercury is so close to the Sun (a year is only 88 Earth days long) and does not have sufficient atmosphere present to moderate the range in surface temperature.

Last modified August 11, 2010 by Randy Russell.

You might also be interested in:

Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

Radioactive Decay

Some materials are radioactive. They emit radiation. When an atom of a radioactive substance emits radiation, it is transformed to a new type of atom. This process is called radioactive decay. There are...more


Meteors are streaks of light, usually lasting just a few seconds, which people occasionally see in the night sky. They are sometimes called "shooting stars" or "falling stars", though they are not stars...more

Magnetosphere of Mercury

Mercury is the only terrestrial planet other than the Earth that has a significant magnetic field (220 nT). This field, along with the planet's high density and small size relative to the Earth, indicates...more

Measuring Atmospheric Pressure

Even though we can't see air, it is real and is made of up many molecules which are zipping around at astonishing speeds. Air molecules travel about 1,090 mph at the surface of the Earth. That said, all...more

Kelvin Temperature Scale

The Kelvin scale is a temperature scale that is often used in astronomy and space science. You are probably more familiar with the Celsius (or Centigrade) scale, which is part of the metric system of measures,...more


The MErcury Surface Space ENvironment, GEochemistry Ranging mission ...more

Mercury's Poles

If Uranus is the "tilted planet", Mercury might be called the "upright planet". The spin axis of Uranus, which defines the locations of the planet's North and South Poles, is tilted by 98. The spin axis...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information. NASA ESIP NCSE HHMI AGU AGI AMS NOAA