# Fundamental Physics

 Physics is the study of basic properties, materials, and forces in our Universe. Our new physics section will start off with some background material about space, time, and matter. It will also include sections on mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermal physics, atomic physics and particle physics, and tools for math and science (vectors, coordinate systems, units of measurement, etc.). The new physics section will also have links to many data sources relevant to Earth and space science. The links below provide access to some of the physics-related materials currently on the site. They are organized roughly into the categories we will use in the forthcoming physics section.

### Thermal Physics

• No entries here yet. The new physics section will include topics like heat, temperature, the laws of thermodynamics, conduction & convection, etc.

### Tools for Math and Science

• No entries here yet. The new physics section will include topics like vectors, coordinate systems, units of measurement, etc.

### Data

Podcast about a flexible, safe contact lens with an imprinted electronic circuit and lights

## Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit

Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and household items!...more

## What is mass?

Would it be more difficult to pull an elephant or a mouse? If you pulled each animal the same amount, the mouse would come towards you but the elephant would not move at all, even if he didn’t try to...more

## Atomic Mass

One way scientists measure the size of something is by its mass. Mass is sort of like weight. Scientists can even measure very, very tiny things like atoms. One measure of the size of an atom is its "atomic...more

## Changes of State: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

A snowman, glass of water and steam might look very different but they are made of the same stuff! Just like any substance, water has three different forms, called states: solid, liquid and gas. The state...more

## Solid

Solid is one of the four common states of matter. The three others are gas, liquid, and plasma. There are also some other exotic states of matter that have been discovered in recent years. Unlike liquids...more

## The Plasma State

Plasma is known as the fourth state of matter. The other three states are solid, liquid and gas.Almost everything is made up of atoms (your dog, your science book, this computer...). The atom has a nucleus...more

## Fundamental Forces

There are four forces in the Universe: strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravity. You may be most familiar with gravity. Gravity is what holds you and your dog to the surface of this planet! The other...more

## Kepler's 2nd Law: The Speeds of Planets

Kepler realized that the line connecting the planet and the Sun sweeps out equal area in equal time. Look at the diagram to the left. What Kepler found is that it takes the same amount of time for the...more

Windows to the Universe, a project of the National Earth Science Teachers Association, is sponsored in part is sponsored in part through grants from federal agencies (NASA and NOAA), and partnerships with affiliated organizations, including the American Geophysical Union, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Earth System Information Partnership, the American Meteorological Society, the National Center for Science Education, and TERC. The American Geophysical Union and the American Geosciences Institute are Windows to the Universe Founding Partners. NESTA welcomes new Institutional Affiliates in support of our ongoing programs, as well as collaborations on new projects. Contact NESTA for more information.