Winds blowing along the South American coast bring cold, deep ocean water to the surface. This is one of several ways that the ocean and atmosphere in the Southeast Pacific are connected.
Courtesy of NOAA
Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling in the Southeast Pacific
There are many connections between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Southeast Pacific Ocean.
Strong winds blow north along the coast of South America. These winds stir up the ocean. That brings cold water to the surface from the deep ocean. That water has lots of nutrients that living creatures need. There are many fish and other sea creatures in this area. The water at the surface is colder in the Southeast Pacific than in most other places at similar latitudes.
The strong winds carry dry air. The cold ocean water doesn't evaporate as easily as warmer water would. The dry air and the Andes Mountains combine to make the Atacama Desert in Chile. It is one of the driest places on Earth.
There are several kinds of particles in the air in this region. Plankton in the ocean make aerosols that have sulfur in them. High winds splash ocean spray filled with sea salt into the air. The winds also carry pollution out to sea from the land. All of these particles change the way that clouds form. There are lots of clouds most of the time in this area. The clouds shade the ocean, keeping it cool.
The connections between the ocean and the atmosphere don't just change the Southeast Pacific. They also make changes much further away. They change the flow of water in the whole Pacific Ocean. These changes help cause the famous El Niño and La Niña events.
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